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What kind of complications can happen to mother and baby due to high blood pressure in pregnancy?

Complications can happen to mother and baby due to high blood pressure in pregnancy

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a common medical condition affecting millions of people worldwide. When high blood pressure occurs during pregnancy, it can become quite dangerous. High blood pressure in pregnancy can sometimes cause complications. So, to ensure the health of both the expectant mother and the unborn child, close monitoring and timely appropriate management is necessary. Let’s go into details.

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Types of high blood pressure

Blood Pressure

1) Gestational hypertension

Gestational hypertension

If people who had normal blood pressure before pregnancy develop high blood pressure after 20 weeks of pregnancy, it is called gestational hypertension. Hypertension is usually diagnosed when the blood pressure is equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg during pregnancy. It usually resolves soon after delivery if no complications develop.

2) Chronic high blood pressure

Chronic high blood pressure

Chronic hypertension may be present before pregnancy or diagnosed before 20 weeks of pregnancy. It can continue after pregnancy and requires intensive care to reduce the risk. High blood pressure usually has no symptoms, so it’s hard to know exactly when it starts.

3) Pre-eclampsia


After 20 weeks of pregnancy, if the problem of high blood pressure occurs regularly and goes out of control, it can develop into pre-eclampsia. It is a serious pregnancy complication. Pre-eclampsia can cause kidney, brain, and liver damage. If not treated at the right time, it poses a threat to the life of the mother and the baby. The mother may begin to have seizures, causing many other types of damage.

What kind of complications can occur?

Let’s know what kind of complications can happen to mother and baby due to high blood pressure in pregnancy-

  • The growth of the unborn child may be reduced. High blood pressure restricts blood flow to the placenta, resulting in impaired fetal growth and development.
  • Chances of premature baby delivery increase. Many times, in emergencies premature caesarean is required. High blood pressure increases the risk of delivery before 37 weeks of pregnancy, which can cause various health problems for the newborn.
  • High blood pressure can lead to placental abruption or detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall. This causes bleeding and reduces the oxygen supply to the baby’s body. As a result, the life of mother and child is at risk.
  • Various internal organs are damaged. Pre-eclampsia can damage vital organs like the liver, kidney, and brain, as mentioned earlier. It also risks the life of the mother.

Symptoms of pre-eclampsia

Symptoms of pre-eclampsia

Apart from high blood pressure, other signs or symptoms of pre-eclampsia include:

  • Excess protein in the urine or kidney problems
  • Severe headache
  • Changes in vision, blurred vision, sensitivity to vision or light
  • Sudden weight gain and swelling – especially watering of the face, feet, and hands
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Accumulation of fluid in the lungs causes shortness of breath

What to do if a problem of high blood pressure in pregnancy?

  • It is very important to monitor high blood pressure during pregnancy, stay in regular follow-up with the doctor, and make positive lifestyle changes. Monitoring blood pressure fluctuations and identifying potential risks is very important. If any changes are detected by regular blood pressure monitoring, a doctor should be consulted immediately.
  • Avoid excess salt, chips, and processed food during pregnancy. Drinks with high salt content also be avoided. If you have the habit of smoking, it should be completely avoided.
  • The growth and health of the baby should be monitored by monitoring fetal movements on ultrasound so that any complications can be detected in time and measures taken accordingly.
  • In some cases, the doctor prescribes certain medicines to control blood pressure during pregnancy, which should be taken with caution and according to the rules. Those taking blood pressure medication before conceiving should consult a gynecologist as there may be some changes in medication and dosage during this time.

Stay stress-free

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Stay stress-free

Do not over-tension at this time. Maintain a healthy lifestyle through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and stress management; Which helps in controlling blood pressure levels. Regular yoga or light exercise can be done as per expert advice.

Be careful in advance so that no complicated situation is created for the mother and the baby due to high blood pressure during pregnancy. Ensuring the good health of mother and child during this time is a challenge. Regular checkups and following all the advice are some of the responsibilities of the expectant mother and her family to face this challenge.

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