Different Types of Burns and What to Do
When winter comes, people of different ages are reported to be burnt in the fire. As the severity of winter increases, the number of burn patients increases. Especially from December to the end of February, these patients are seen more. A little carelessness can lead to a fatal accident. However, if an accident does occur, it is important to get immediate medical attention. Due to the non-availability of treatment and lack of proper knowledge about first aid, the death rate due to burns is high. Let’s know some important facts about different types of burns and first aid.
Different Types of Burns
First Degree Burns
These burns damage the top layer of the skin, or the epidermis, and can be painful. It is also called a superficial burn. It is caused by a small flame or heat. In this case, the wound is slightly red, dry, and does not blister.
Second Degree Burns
In this burn, the epidermis is completely damaged and the next layer, the dermis, is partially damaged. It burns or scalds the skin and turns red or gray. In this case, blisters occur.
Third Degree Burns
It is also called deep burn. In this case, the skin becomes blackened and burns and becomes severe. Both the top layers of the skin (epidermis and dermis) are completely damaged. Muscles, blood vessels, and nerves under the skin are also affected. The affected area becomes blackened, the skin burns and hardens, and no pain is felt to the touch.
Another type of burn is scalded burn. Burns caused by hot liquid substances such as hot tea, pulses, rice starch, etc. are called scald burns or liquid burns. Women and children are usually more at risk of such burns. It is usually first-degree.
Flame burns are more common in winter. People in rural areas tend to set fire to their clothes or bodies carelessly. As a result, a major disaster ensued. It can be any type of first-degree, second-degree, third degree.
Chemical burns can also occur with flammable chemicals. Various chemicals such as acid, ammonia-like substances, bleach, etc. come in contact with the skin, eyes, mouth, or any organ, there is a risk of danger. Even these organs can be permanently damaged.
Burns due to electric burn or electric shock. High voltage current shock can sometimes cause third-degree burns.
In case of fire, some basic treatment should be given at the beginning. For example-
- First of all, burnt clothes should be carefully removed from the body of the burnt patient. Otherwise, the skin may come off with the clothes from the burn wound on the body. Dirt or ash from clothing on burn wounds is likely to cause infection.
- First and foremost, first aid for a burn patient is water and only water. At this time, as much water as possible should be poured into the patient’s body. It will cool the burned skin, and the burning sensation will reduce to some extent.
- Ice or ice-cold water should not be used. This may increase the depth of the wound. Therefore, the wound should be washed with running normal-temperature water for at least 30 minutes.
- Burns can be reduced by just pouring water on the burnt area. It is possible to reduce the burn level from 20 percent to 15 or 10 percent by just pouring water.
- If the wound is somewhat normal after pouring water, then low-dose hydrocortisone cream or burn cream can be applied.
- If these are not immediately available then moisturizing lotion or aloe vera lotion can be given. Vaseline alone can also be given. Vaseline cools the skin quickly.
- If petrol or oil-like substances catch fire, the fire will be extinguished even if you lie on sand or ground and rollover.
- The first six hours of a severe burn patient are critical. If taken to the hospital during this period, the risk of death of the patient can be reduced to a great extent. If the degree of burns on the body is more than 30 percent, emergency treatment should be given. If more than 40 percent burns, the patient is considered critical. However, recovery depends a lot on the patient’s age. The risk of death is higher even though burns are less common in the elderly.
Anything To Stay Away from Fire
There are always fires in the country. Every year hundreds of people are killed in different types of fires. But if you are a little aware, you can protect yourself and the affected person from great danger. In the first part, we learned some important facts about the different types of burns and first aid. In this episode we will know about all the information that is important to know to escape from fire or if you get burned somewhere, in a word to stay away from fire.
Be Extra Careful to Stay Away from Fire
- In winter, while taking the heat of the fire, the clothes catch fire and burn the lower part of the body. At this time, the lower parts including the lower abdomen, and thighs, caused serious wounds in the fire. Therefore, it is very important to keep clothes carefully when there is a fire.
- Many people use heaters to heat their homes in winter. Placing a heater near a bed or window can cause a fire in sheets or curtains. Care should be taken not to be careless.
- If you have crawling babies in the house, you need to be extra careful when using hot water or anything hot around them.
- Many people turn on stoves to heat their homes or to dry clothes. As it wastes gas, it can also cause serious accidents. A burst gas cylinder or clothes drying on the stove can catch fire in the house.
- In case of fire due to electrical interference or a short circuit, first switch off the main switch.
- If there are flammable objects in the house, care should be taken to keep them away from the source of the fire.
- A small child should never take tea, coffee, hot soup, or any hot food while holding the baby. Children tend to move more or catch what they see in front of them. At that time, if you are a little careless, the hot liquid on the hand can slip into the child’s body.
- Peripheral neuropathy in elderly diabetic patients leads to decreased sensation in the hands and feet. Many times, they don’t feel the temperature difference while cooking with a hot water bag. Holding a hot water bag in one place for too long can cause dry heat burns or first-degree burns.
- Care must be taken when heating water using electric coils or rods. Since water conducts electricity, if the current switch is not turned off while checking the water temperature by hand, an inadvertent electric shock may occur.
Things That Absolutely Cannot Be Done to Stay Away from Fire
- Don’t panic and run away. If the fire in the body is burning, it can spread further or the skin can be rubbed or rubbed with something.
- Many times, toothpaste, salt, egg white, or onion juice can be applied to the burn. This can never be done. It is very harmful to the burn patient. As a result of these uses, the heat of the burnt area cannot be released and the second-degree burn becomes third-degree.
- Blisters on skin burns should never be thawed. The water in the blister is a protein-like substance and is reabsorbed by the body.
- Never try to put out a fire by covering it with a blanket. The blanket traps the heat of the fire in the body and increases the burning of the skin.
How to Take Any Kind of Fire?
- Water is the best way to put out any kind of dry material such as cloth, paper, bamboo, wood, or building fire. However, if there is a fire in the house, the main line of electricity must be shut off before giving water.
- If there is a fire with petrol, diesel, or oil, the danger will increase if water is used to extinguish it. The oil spread due to the water and the fire spread with it. Therefore, if the fire is small, it should be covered with heavy cloth like sand, sacks, wet sacks, or blankets.
- Foam is good for extinguishing fuel oil fires. Carbon dioxide works best in extinguishing gas fires. In both cases, it is better to use a fire extinguisher.
- In case of fire from any type of gas, the gas main line should be shut off. Then the fire should be extinguished with a forceful splash of water. If it is understood that the gas is leaking, then in no way can anything like lamps, cigarettes, or burning candles be taken near that place.
- In case of fire due to an electric short circuit, water should not be poured into it. Water is a good conductor of electricity so one can easily be electrocuted to death. In this case, the main switch of the current should be turned off first. Then the fire should be brought under control with water from a safe distance. It is best if you can use a fire extinguisher.
If there is a fire, the treatment must be taken accordingly. However, one should try not to accidentally set fire to the body due to one’s actions. So, first of all, it is important to be careful. Whatever work is done near the fire, always keep yourself safe.
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